Category: Rainfall

Is this strange Logic?


Cyclone Yasi
Cyclone Yasi

When designing box gutters to the Australian Plumbing Code AS/NZS 3500 we design them for a once in 100 year storm event.


Now,  box gutters have always had a bad reputation for causing damage.

But with the advent of AS/NZS 3500 giving a concise method of designing box gutters, there should be no damage for all storms up to at least a 1 in 100 year event. (tested in the lab BTW)


Now the strange logic part. What if a hurricane or a cyclone, etc is taken as a 1 in 100 year storm event.

Our box gutter may be the least of our worries.


Cyclone Tacy
Cyclone Tracy

However just to protect one’s backside, in these days of  litigation etc. we should make sure our box gutters are designed for a once in 100 year storm. (Besides which it is mandatory under the code)


Just in case we get a wind free cyclone.


Alternatively, I hear you ask, what about the recent floods in Dungog? Surely that was a 1 in 100 year event?


They got a lot of rain there. But not much wind.


So, when your house is floating down the river, are you going to sue your Hydraulic Consultant if your box gutter springs a leak?


On second thought, yea probably, these days.


Dungog flood
Dungog Flood
rainfall event
Dungog Rainfall event

Ever wondered what angle rain falls during a once in 100 year storm?

A 1 in 100 year storm could be a typhoon, a cyclone, a hurricane, or a tornado.


These storms have very strong winds, so what happens if the rain angle is actually horizontal?


If the rain was horizontal it wouldn’t hit the ground would it?


So does the rain just keep going until it eventually evaporates?


But that can’t be right because we have floods.


And if these events  are really once in 100 year storms, how come we can have one every year?


(refer to the comments below for the real answer). However continuing on for the rest of us….


The only logical answer is that the rain must come down somewhere, so once in every 100 years the rain comes down on your building.


At an angle of 63.4 degrees (2:1). Because that’s whats written in the Plumbing Code.


rain fall
I reckon that rain is about 45 degrees

So it sort of takes it in turns, every 100 years your building is the lucky one, the structure at the end of the rainbow.


But not to worry, because if we use the plumbing code, we design all box gutters for this event.


We design for a 1 in 100 year storm with the  rain coming down at an angle of 63.4 degrees (2:1)


What is a Rain Shadow? and why do I need to know?

rain shadow

When designing roof gutters, or surface drainage for building sites, The rain shadow can make a big difference. Especially for a tall building.


The Plumbing Codes assume rain is coming down at an angle of 2:1.


That is 2 units vertical to 1 unit horizontal. (63.4 degrees).


So from the diagram on the left, you can see the effect of the shadow.rain shadow3

The area of the shadow is half the area of the vertical face of the building. (2:1remember).



But what if rain comes from the other direction?


From the diagram on the right, you can see that half the vertical face of the building has been added to the catchment area.


The catchment area is always measured on the horizontal plane. Because that’s how they measure rainfall when they talk about ‘mm’ or ‘inches’ of rain.  So to make all our hydraulic formulas work, we must also use this method if we want to use rainfall figures calculated by the local Weather Bureau.


Now consider the interesting case where we have a building on both sides. One side has the shadow, and the other has the added catchment. If the buildings were of equal height, the effects would cancel each other out. No matter which direction the rain came from. Even if the rain came down the middle.


Got your head around that one yet?


However if the rain came from all directions at once, we are in diabolical trouble, and our roof gutter design, or site storm water design would be the least of our worries.