Instructions:
Enter the horizontal roof catchment area (ie plan area) for the section of roof you desire. Enter the roof slope.
Choose a location, click the check box if the eaves gutter slope is steeper than 1:500 (eg 1:200).
Then press calculate to obtain the required number of downpipes and eaves gutter cross sectional area.
Roof design:
If using the number of downpipes calculated above, try to have approximately equal catchment areas draining
to each down pipe, with high points approx midway between downpipes, and DP's as close as possible to valley gutters. (Don't forget,
if there are no stop ends in the gutter, water may flow a little between catchments. i.e. if one downpipe is overloaded,
excess water may continue to the next downpipe.)
Also, although not stated in the plumbing code, the Building Code requires DP spacing to be not greater than 12m.
This would apply to straight runs of gutter to limit the expansion, would also require an expansion joint every 12m in this case.
If it is not possible to have equal catchments, and a catchment area is much larger than the others,
then run the program again for just that larger catchment, it may require an extra downpipe.
Any size, or shape eaves gutter may be used, as long as the cross sectional area is equal to, or greater than, the size calculated.
The number of downpipes required is the theoretical number required. This is not always a whole number.
So the number used in the eaves gutter area calculation, is the theoretical number rounded up,
if the fraction of a downpipe is greator than 0.1, or rounded down otherwise.
When designing pipework, we must always use the internal pipe diameter in all calculations, however some suppliers quote stormwater pipes
as the Outside Diameter, so a 150 dia. pipe shown in the calculator is usually equivalent to a 160 dia storm water pipe in the catalogue.
Also, the Code only refers to the "Nominal Diameter". The actual Internal diameter may be more or less, depending on the material and pipe class
chosen.
Towns not listed :
For towns not listed, you may add your own entensity; but you must select the location choice to:
"I prefer to enter a known intensity"
Also the intensity required in Australia should be for a 1 in 20 year storm with a 5 minute time of concentration.
and in New Zealand a 1 in 10 year storm with a 10 minute time of concentration.
These figures can be obtained from the graphs in the Plumbing Code, or requested from the Hydrometeorological Advisory Services
of the Bureau of Meteorology (HASBM) in Australia; or in New Zealand from the National Institute for Water and Atmosphere(NIWA).
Also, your local Authority, Consulting Engineer, or Hydraulic Consultant may be able to advise.
Also from here Intensity, Frequency, Duration curves.. (Civil Engineers will love this site)
Some Theory :
The time of concentration is the time it takes water to travel from the furtherest point in the catchment to the point under investigation.
To generate peak flow from a catchment, a storm must last at least this long. Now the longer a storm lasts, the less is the average intensity.
eg a storm may bucket down for 5 mins, but is not likely to keep up such an intensity for hours.
The flow of water in a down pipe is restricted by the size of the entry (ie the
entry diameter, throat, or orifice.)
Water starts to enter a downpipe as though it was flowing over a weir into the mouth
of the downpipe. The weir formula is used to
calculate the downpipe size.
As the flow builds up, the water level over this weir increases until the
entire mouth of the downpipe is submerged,
just like your bath tub when you pull the plug. The downpipe entry now acts like an
orifice, and the orifice formula
is used to calculate the downpipe size.
The greator the depth of water over the down pipe, the more water can be forced
through this entry orifice, or over the entry edge (weir).
This is why we have a rain water head over some downpipes, to increase the depth of
water over the entry
and hence force more water into the downpipe.
Another way to increase the downpipe capacity, is to increase the throat diameter by having a conical entrance
to the downpipe. Hence increasing the length of the entry weir.
However you should approach a consultant on this as it is not always applicable.
A down pipe designed to the code does not flow anywhere near full, it is the entry orifice/weir that limits the flow.
If you want to investigate this further, check out the notes on the pipe size calculator
Charged downpipes etc
A "charged" downpipe is one that flows full, or stays full because of a "U" shape.
The above figures are based on:
Storm frequency of 1:20 years (code requirement).
Non Circular Down pipes
From AS3500 :
a 90 dia, down pipe is equivalent to a 5175 sq.mm rectangular down pipe.
(cross sectional area)
a 100 dia, down pipe is equivalent to a 6409 sq.mm rectangular down pipe.
a 150 dia, down pipe is equivalent to a 14,365 sq.mm rectangular down pipe.
You will find that this equates to a pipe of the same perimeter. (not cross sectional area)
Hence the weir formula is used as determining the capacity of the entry.
The longer the weir the more water will enter the pipe.
Notes:
AS3500 does not take into account the location of the downpipe along the gutter, nor
does it adjust the formula for bends in the gutter.
This can make a big difference. The code only allows for the worst possible
case. This makes it ideal for residential buildings with many turns and bends
in the roof. However for projects with long straight roofs (Large industrial Sheds) it would be
conservative (ie an overdesign).
For these projects, the CSIRO have produced formulas that take into account the location of down pipes and bends
along the gutter.
I would also be interested in any modifications, or suggestions that you would
like incorporated.
If you need more info, or you would like other areas of Australia, or New
Zealand, added to the list, please send me an email.
